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Forex natomy thalamusic

forex natomy thalamusic

5,.2 and.1). Nevertheless, the definition of the H field as part of the pallidothalamic pathways is still used in the literature and often misleading. Mpfc), Cerebellum Efferenzen:.a. Antioxidative Q, antidepressive , angstlösende und nootropische Wirkung Q ; Einfluss auf die Insulinsekretion Q Erkrankungen: Störungen des zirkadianen Rhythmus; sexuelle Frühreife; Verstärkung bzw. Striatum Str, Corpus striatum Streifenk?rper Funktionen: 'Eingangspforte' der Basalganglien; starke Verschaltungen zum Neocortex; Aufmerksamkeit - viele Dopaminrezeptoren Q Arbeitsged?chtnis Q ; Erwerb von F?higkeiten (kognitiv, perzeptiv, motorisch) Q Exekutive: Zusammenwirken von Motivation, Emotion, Kognition und dem Bewegungsverhalten auf neuronaler Ebene Aktivierung. Previous experiments in monkey have shown that SNr projects to the thalamus, particularly to VAmc, VM, MDpl, and Pf nuclei (Carpenter. In the subthalamic area, these fibres run ventral to the STh and to the fasciculus subthalamicus to continue posteriorly toward the SN, as shown in Fig. A second fibre tract could be recognized at the anterior, mid-dorsal, and lateral aspect of the STh nucleus, both characterized by enhanced PV-ir. Hirnnerv Zungenbewegung *.T. For the cerebellothalamic tractotomy (CTT these are 56 mm posterior to mcl and 8 mm lateral to ventricular border, respectively. The position of the fl is more anterior to ft in both cases (median values.6 and.2 home based online job malaysia mm anterior to pc for Hb1 and Hb4, respectively and the mediolateral extension varies from.3.1 mm. The first is related to CB positive fibres running through the pallidal segments, the internal capsule and penetrating the cerebral peduncle on the ventral aspect of the STh en route to the substantia nigra, pars reticulata.

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Großhirnrinde, Kortex, funktionen: Motorik, Hören, Sehen, Geruch, Gedächtnis, Kognition, Sprache, 'Ich'. Since Forels seminal morphological studies of the pallidothalamic fibres (without knowing their origin) that were described as fields (or Campi) (Forel 1877 the terms H, H1, and H2 fields of Forel have been consecutively used by different neuroanatomists. Hirnnerv Parasympathikus, innere Organe * Nervus accessorius (XI. Zum dlpfc weitergeleitet, um die kognitive Kontrolle zu erhöhen Q Informationstransfer:.a. Scale bar ( upper left panel 2 mm Magnetic resonance images In two autopsy brains (Table 1, Hb4 and Hb5 MR images were acquired with a 3-Tesla scanner (Philips). For illustrations, scanned images were adjusted for contrast and brightness with Adobe Photoshop and transferred as computer files to the software Adobe Illustrator for production of the final montage. Except for two blocks that were frozen in cryostat, all other were frozen by immersion in isopentane at 30C and then stored at 75C.

Forex plus fiable anatomy indicateur thalamus

Q Stressreaktionen (Teil des (HPA-Achse) mit Corticotropin Releasing Hormonen (CRH) bzw. In terms of mediolateral extension, there is a significant difference between the two cases with an extension from.5 to L9 for Hb1, and from L2 to L5 for Hb4. 1997, 2002 ; Baron. Subthalamic nucleus STN, Nucleus subthalamicus Subthalamischer Kern Funktionen: Motorik Steuerung, "Schrittmacher der Basalganglien" (mit Globus Pallidus) - Handlungsselektion Erkrankungen: Parkinson Q, Q, Q, Hemiballismus Q, Tourette-Syndrom Q ; erhöhte Impulsivität bei Auswahl-Konflikten Q, Progressive supranukleäre Blickparese (PSP: Progressive supranuclear palsy).2.4. He was not able to differentiate between cerebellothalamic fibres running in his H field (the so-called prerubral field of Forel) and the pallidothalamic (ft) fibres more anteriorly. These relay information to the primary somatosensory cortex (Brodmann 3,1,2) by way of the posterior limb of the internal capsule then through the corona radiate (projection fibers). In the case of the human body, the nervous system can be divided into the major road ways (nerves) that carry individuals (impulses) to and from the big city (the brain). Scale bar ( lower right panel 2 mm Fig. . The horizontal planes are projected on a sagittal section of the atlas.1 mm distant from the ventricular border (L8.1) in lower right panel.

The anteroposterior and mediolateral coordinates for the pallidothalamic tractotomy (PTT) are at midcommissural (mcl) level and 7 mm lateral to ventricular border, respectively. Im Hinblick auf Konsequenzen wie Belohnung und Bestrafung Q, Umgang mit Bestrafern - wie?chtung - und Verst?rkern - wie Essen, Lob - (Bewertung Q,?berwachung, Lernen, Speicherung) und das daraus resultierende Verhalten; Regulierung von Stimuli aus der. Additionally, the posterior thalamus is deep to the splenium of the corpus callosum. Claustrum Cl, Claustrum Claustrum Funktionen: Bewusstsein; Zusammenführung verschiedenster Attribute zu einem Objekt (Synchronisierung sensorischer Impulse Synchronisation verschiedener perzeptueller, kognitiver und motorischer Modalitäten Q ; Claustrokortikales Netzwerk zur sensorischen Integration Q Verarbeitung visueller sexueller Stimuli. 8, from their emergence from the internal part of the pallidum (A20.0 and A17.5 for the al and A17.5 and A15.0 for the fl) up to their entry in the thalamus (A12.25). On sagittal sections, the main orientation of the tract is posteroventral to anterodorsal, with a 6065 angle with the intercommissural plane (Fig. Efferenzen: * Tractus rubroolivaris: Olive, (- Rückenmark, Kleinhirn * Tractus rubroreticularis: Retikuläre Formation ( Rhombencephalon * Tractus rubrothalamicus: Thalamus * Tractus rubrospinalis: Rückenmark.a. 14 Targeting in functional neurosurgery. The former, however, also communicates with the trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic tracts, as well as other nuclei of the thalamus. The al, which represents the ventral division of the ansa lenticularis of von Monakow leaves the internal pallidum at its anteroventral edge and courses anteromedially around the posterior limb of the internal capsule (Figs.

Forex schwarz platte thalamus anatomy

Beine Q Transport motorischer Informationen Q an andere Hirnzentren und Körperregionen: Motorische Zentren - Pedunculi Cerebri - Thalamuskerne Erkrankungen: Locked-in-Syndrom Q, Hemiparese Q, Tumore Q, Multisystematrophie.3.1. Medial group - median, medial dorsal, medial nuclei. Periaqueductal gray PAG, Substantia grisea centralis Periaqu?duktales Grau Funktionen: Absteigende Unterdr?ckung von Schmerz (Opioidrezeptoren) Q, Q, Q, Empathie mit Schmerz Q Abwehr, Angst Q, Q, Fluchtreflexe, Wut Q Blutdruckmodulation Q Mutterliebe Q, Reproduktionsverhalten Q Stimmbildung Q Erkrankungen: Panikst?rung Q, Depression (5-HTT). Quelle Posterior parietal cortex PPL Hinterer Parietallappen Funktionen: Visuell, r?umlich; Teil des Motorkortex : Transformation von visueller Information in motorische Anweisungen Handlungsplanung in Situationen, in denen sich die Reaktionen widersprechen Q Superior parietal lobule SPL, BA 5, 7 Oberes Parietall?ppchen Funktionen. The field H1, on the other hand, is more difficult to relate with the al or fl because it contains both fibre bundles. Anterior Thalamic Nuclei anteroventral (AV anteromedial (AM anterodorsal (AD) ATN, Nuclei anterioris Nucleus ventralis anterolateralis, Nucleus anteromedialis, Nucleus dorsalis anterolateralis Anteriore Thalamuskerne Ventraler anterolateraler, Anteromedialer, Dorsaler anterolateraler Thalamuskern Funktionen: Beeinflussung kortikaler Erinnerungsprozesse Q Erkrankungen: Epilepsie Q, Amnesien Q, Q, Wernicke-Korsakoff-Syndrom. Same conventions as in Fig. The lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus and the pulvinar are found on the upper level of the bus (dorsal surface of the thalamus whereas the ventral anterior, ventral lateral and the subdivisions of the ventral posterior. Moreover, high-resolution post-mortem MRI scans prior to guillotine section and histological processing, were very helpful not only to visualize the subthalamic fibre tracts and thalamic structures with no additional deformation (except that caused by removing the brain. As seen on sagittal planes (upper panels of Fig.

Human pallidothalamic and cerebellothalamic tracts: anatomical

The locations of the targeted PTT and CTT in relation to the variability of the positions of the pallido- and cerebellothalamic tracts are represented in Fig. The ft reaches mainly the parvocellular division of the ventral anterior (VApc) and VLa nuclei through the anterior part of the VM nucleus (Fig. As a result of the location of the internal medullary lamina, each thalamus is divided into roughly three main parts : the anterior, medial and lateral thalamus. 12 the dorsoventral variation of the position of the two tracts is similar to that of the ventral part of the thalamus (e.g. The head of the caudate nucleus lies anterosuperiorly to the thalamus with the body travelling superior and laterally to the body of the thalamus. This was minimal (1.02) within the plane of section but slightly higher for distances measured across sections (as also reported in Morel 2007 ). Episodisch und autobiographisch Q, aber nicht prozedural und nur.T. Myelencephalon MO, Myelencephalon, Medulla oblongata Nachhirn, verlängertes Rückenmark Funktionen: * Vierter Ventrikel * Zungen-Rachen-Nerv (Nervus glossopharyngeus,. Stereotactic localization and interindividual variability The stereotactic position of the cerebello- and pallidothalamic tracts was determined in six hemispheres (three brains; cases Hb1, Hb4, and Hb5; Table 1 ). Der St?rke der Verbindung zwischen einem Stimulus und dem damit verbundenen Resultat als Grundlage f?r angemessenes Verhalten Q Erkrankungen: Amnesien, Posttraumatische BS Q und andere stressbezogene Erkrankungen Q, Alzheimer Q, Depression Q, Q, Bipolare affektive St?rung Q, Q, Dissoziative St?rungen Q, Adipositas. As seen on sagittal and horizontal planes (Figs. 1997 ; Haber and McFarland 2001 ; Parent and Parent 2004 ). Nomenclature The nomenclature of the subthalamic fibres was revised and adapted in an effort to combine old terminology with more recent studies in primates.

Limbic projections to the thalamus, springerLink

The mediolateral and anteroposterior coordinates of the ft, fl, and fct are plotted in Fig. 2006 ; Plaha. Zum auditorischen Assoziationskortex, Hirnstamm und autonomen Strukturen als Input f?r die emotionale Kommunikation und autonome Aktivierung bei emotionaler Erregung Q Probleml?sung, Konzentration auf eine Aufgabe Reaktions-Inhibition Q, Selbstregulierung, Emotionsregulierung Q Angst (rACC, Konditionierung in der Amygdala ). 2 the second to reduce section shrinkage and deformation due to successive alcohol treatments. These pallido-pedunculopontine connections are supposed to be affected by medial pallidotomies in PD patients and could explain part of the beneficial results against akinesia. At pallidal level, the negative staining of al is clearly in contrast with the very intense CR-ir in the sublenticular area, associated with the extended amygdala defined by others (Heimer. To ease the description, we adopted a Latin nomenclature for the subthalamic fibre systems,.e. In dargestellten Szenen - und Verarbeitung). The left thalamus communicates with the right thalamus by way of the interthalamic adhesion. Relations between cerebello- and pallidothalamic fibres in the subthalamic region: consequences for neurosurgical targeting The present study demonstrates that the pallidothalamic and cerebellothalamic tracts do not to converge in the subthalamic region. 1993 ; Inase and Tanji 1994, 1995 ; Rouiller.

After several rinses in phosphate buffered saline (pH.4 sections were incubated 48 h at 4C or 24 h at room temperature in primary antibodies (dilutions 1:1,0001:5,000; depending on the antibody and tissue fixation 2 normal horse or goat serum; and.2 triton-X-100. Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Hypophyse, Fornix und Mamillarkörper sind Teil des Diencephalons. The arrows in a and d point to forex natomy thalamusic a small gap separating the fct and ft, visible in myelin and PV-ir, respectively. Mit anterioren und dorsomedialen Nuclei im Thalamus ) Q ; r?umliches Ged?chtnis/ Lernen Q Schlaf Q Erkrankungen: Amnesien Q, Alkoholismus Q (Wernicke-Korsakoff-Syndrom Q Autismus, Alzheimer Q, obstruktive Schlafapnoe Q, Angstst?rungen Q, Epilepsie Q Anterior pituitary, Adenohypophysis AHP, Adenohypophyse Hypophysenvorderlappen Funktionen. Superior colliculus SC, Colliculi superiores Obere (vordere) zwei Hügel Funktionen: Blindsight Q, Q, Visuelle Reizleitung (z.B. Hirnnerv Lateraler Augenmuskel; Erkrankungen: Abduzensparese - Einwärtsschielen * Gesichtsnerv (Nervus facialis, VII. These include: the ventral spinothalamic, which is responsible for conveying the sensation of light touch and pressure from Merkels tactile disks to the VPL the lateral spinothalamic, which transmits impulses of pain and temperature changes from A-delta and. Corresponding to the thick part of the tract (or bulk of the tract, as shown in Fig. Scale bars ( lower right panels 2 mm Fig. . Coordinates indicated in the left column (A2.5, A5, and.5) correspond to millimeters anterior to the posterior commissural level.

Indeed, there is an increasing evidence that RFL or DBS partially or completely involving subthalamic fibre tracts from the pallidum (in case of PD) or from the cerebellar nuclei (in case of ET or other types of kinetic tremors). Whole brains were placed in a plastic bag filled with 4 PAF or neutral formalin and maintained in the scanner with foam pieces. 2001 ; Haber 2003 ; Parent and Parent 2004 ) but how the cells of origin of these two fibre systems distribute within the GPi is still controversial. This was particularly the case for the passage of fibres through the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle, where identification of tracts can only be inferred, but not firmly assessed, on myelin stained sections. Thalamus - Prämotor-, Motorkortex, Nucleus ruber 2) Archizerebellum/ Vestibulocerebellum: Gleichgewicht, Augenbewegungen Q 3) Paleocerebellum/ Spinocerebellum: * Tonus, Bewegung von Körper und Gliedmaßen Q * Propriozeption (vom Rückenmark, Trigeminus, visuellen und auditor. Hirnnerv) Erkrankungen: Plötzlicher Kindstod (Serotonin) Q, Wallenberg-Syndrom Q - zurück nach oben - Erkrankungen: Angst- und Panikstörungen Q, Creutzfeld-Jakob-Krankheit Q Mesencephalon, Pons, Medulla oblongata wie oben wie oben siehe dort Olive, Olivary Body Olive Olive Funktionen: * Nucleus olivaris inferior (en: inferior olivary complex. On frontal sections, the orientation is medioventral to laterodorsal, with a 4045 angle with the intercommissural plane (Figs. Posterior The posterior most aspect of the thalamus is known as the pulvinar. 7 Series of frontal high-resolution proton density postmortem MRI ( left column myelin sections ( middle column and atlas maps ( right column ) of the same brain (Table 1 ; Hb5 at corresponding anteroposterior levels from. Some fibres coursing on the dorsal aspect of the STh and continuous with the fl tract (e.g. 8, A20A15 medial, lateral, and anterior thalamic nuclei (AV, LD, MD, LP, and the intralaminar CM and CL nuclei). Erkrankung: Autismus Q Prefrontal cortex PFC, Regio frontalis Pr?frontaler Kortex Funktionen: Exekutive: Impuls-, Emotions- und Verhaltenskontrolle, Kognition, Planung, 'Pers?nlichkeit soziale Anpassung, 'angemessenes' Verhalten, Ziel- und Wertorientierung, Urteilskraft, Differenzierung, Auswahl, Entscheidungsfindung, Voraussicht, Ausrichtung an m?glichen Konsequenzen Kurzzeitged?chtnis Q Starke Verschaltungen.

Dorsally, it is covered by a layer known as the stratum zonale ; while laterally, it is covered by the external medullary lamina, which separates the lateral and ventral thalamus from the thalamic forex natomy thalamusic reticular nucleus and the subthalamus. Similar evidence for the importance of the fibres in DBS efficacy was proposed by Benabid and col. The antibodies used were mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against parvalbumin (PV) or calbindin (CB) (SWant, Bellinzona, Switzerland or Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA rabbit polyclonal against calretinin (CR) (SWant mouse monoclonal against the nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32; Sternberger Monoclonals Inc., Covance. Thalamic reticular nucleus Geniculate bodies Finally, the medial and lateral geniculate bodies are also considered nuclei of the thalamus. The reaction was visualized with 3,3-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride as chromogen, diluted.05.05 M Trissaline (pH.7) and.001 H2O2. Others using tracer injections or RFL lesions in GPi (Baron. The STh, thalamic VLp nucleus and the optic tract (ot) are strongly enhanced in PV-ir. As controls, the primary antibody was omitted while the rest of the procedure remained the same. Q Erkrankungen: Gerstmann-Syndrom, Balint-Syndrom, Autismus, q, Asperger; Chorea Huntington,.1.

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The maps are centered on the midcommissural (mcl) and intercommissural (DV0) lines. Interestingly, these PV-ir fibres appear in negative contrast to the thick myelinated fibres seen at the same level (Figs. Zentren * Feststellung und Antizipation der Position von K?rperteilen im forex natomy thalamusic Raum * Visuospatiale Kompetenzen: Propriozeptive R?ckmeldung zur Lage im Raum; r?umliche Orientierung, temporospatiale Modelle Vorhersagen (posterior) Q, Transformation sensorischer Raum-Zeit-Koordinaten in Motorkoordinaten (Tensor Network Theory) Q, Q Kognition: Grundlage f?r die Entwicklung. These striatonigral fibres were already described in terms of neurochemical characteristics in a previous report on the human basal ganglia (Morel. Scale bars ( a and c 2 mm Fig. .

Temporoparietaler Übergang, anterior parietal cortex. Tectum Tec, Tectum mesencephali Mittelhirndach Funktionen: Optische und auditorische Reizleitung; Kontrolle der Augenbewegungen; schnelle Verarbeitung und Integration sensorischer Impulse und Emotionen (Quellen: Siehe SC und IC).2.1. 2001 ; Parent and Parent 2004 ). The delineations of the fibre bulks were also superposed on Nissl sections (where they appear negatively stained which undergo minimal deformations and served as primary basis for map drawings in the Morel atlas. Emotionaler und motivationaler Kontexte Q,.B. Bei Konflikten zwischen simultanen, konkurrierenden Repräsentationen Q, Minimierung von Ablenkungen Q Konflikt - wirkt als Lehrimpuls für's Vermeidungslernen - beeinflusst die Entscheidungsfindung zu Gunsten kognitiv effizienter Aufgaben und Strategien Q Antizipation und Erkennung von Aufgaben und Antwort-Konflikten Q ; das Konfliktsignal wird.B. 4 b, 11 b; Morel 2007 ) and pallidothalamic terminals have been reported to be confined to the CB-positive territory of the motor thalamus in monkeys (see Percheron. The most commonly used surgical approach for PD is to target the subthalamic nucleus with DBS. VM but others are different (e.g. 1983a, b ; Rouiller. The fct, ft, and fl from two different brains (Hb1 in red and Hb4 in gray) are compared on sagittal sections (L7 and L8) in upper panels.

Gehirn-Atlas : Gehirn-, anatomie, Gehirn-Funktionen und

An die Amygdala Q, Q Suchfunktionen Q, Kontrolle der Augen- und Kopfbewegungen (optische Reflexe, Sakkaden) Q, Q, Q, interhemisph?rischer Transport sensorimotorischer Informationen Q Multisensorische Q, Q, audiovisuelle Integration Q (synchrone Signale Q, Sprache Q Zusammenf?hrung verschiedenster sensorischer Informationen zur Verbesserung von. These are the medial and lateral geniculate bodies, which are responsible for the processing of auditory and visual sensory inputs, respectively. Figure 14 illustrates PTT of fl and ft, and CTT of fct in two patients with PD and ET, respectively, on 2-day postoperative axial T1-weighted MRI (panels a and b) and projections onto a horizontal section of the atlas (panel c). Lateral to the external medullary lamina is the reticular nucleus, then the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The exact location where the fl and al meet together, becoming ft, could not be determined with our methods, but the data suggest that the two tracts merge in the dorsal part of the H1 H2 field of Forel. Q Schmerz (kognitive Erkennung - auch.B.

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2005 is a re-actualisation of earlier surgical experiences (Spiegel and Wycis 1954 ; Spiegel. However, they are believed to communicate with the cingulate gyrus, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, along with other thalamic nuclei. 4 a; 5, L9 and.9). Positions of the horizontal intercommissural (DV0 posterior commissural (AP0) and midcommissural (mcl) planes are also indicated. Durch St?rung der Neurogenese durch Glukokortikoide Q Depression Q, Q, Q (kognitive Aspekte Q D?j? vu, Epilepsie Q, Alzheimer Q, Q Amygdala Amg, Amygdala Amygdala Funktionen: Emotion, Gefahr, Abscheu Q, Angst Q (Konditionierung) Q ; Operante Konditionierung.

forex natomy thalamusic

Although some overlap exists between the cerebello- and pallidothalamic terminals fields in the lateral thalamus, direct interaction between the two seems very limited, as discussed above. This study is based on post-mortem examination of five brains from normal subjects with no history of neurological diseases or pathological signs at autopsy. 4 b) may correspond to efferents from the GPi to the pedonculopontine nucleus (PPN) (Nauta and Mehler 1966 ; Shink. This approach offers the advantage over thalamic RFL (as used principally for tremor) to spare thalamic cells and related thalamocortical loops. This is related to overall differences in mediolateral width of the thalamus and subthalamic area in the different brains (as also reported in Morel 2007 ). The distances were measured at three different dorsoventral levels 2 mm ventral (V2) and 1 mm ventral (V1) to intercommissural level, and intercommissural level (DV0) of two different brains (Hb1 and Hb4) cut in the sagittal plane. The first experimental anterograde study of the cerebellothalamic fibres after destruction of the dentate nucleus in monkey is due to Vogt (Vogt 1909 ). The terminal fibers then end in the occipital lobes visual cortex ( Brodmann 17, 18, 19 ). 11 Photomicrographs of adjacent frontal sections 15 mm anterior to the posterior commissure stained for a myelin, c AchE, and b immunostained for the calcium-binding proteins CB and. 5, 6, 12 and because of the electrode trajectory restrained by a precoronal approach, our surgical targeting in PD and in ET are determined at 2 mm ventral to intercommissural plane (V2). At thalamic level, evidence for a convergence of pallidal and cerebellar fibres onto the same nuclei, although with minor overlap, has been brought by experimental studies in monkeys (Rouiller.

forex natomy thalamusic

For the first case (Hb4 T1-weighted MRI in the three stereotactic planes were acquired with the following parameters: FOV 220 mm; 400 400; TSE factor 15; TR 3,000 ms; TE 80; thickness 2 mm/0 gap; acquisition voxel:.55/0.56/2.0 mm; and total scan time:. Pyramidenbahn) Sehen, H?ren, Augenbewegung Capsula interna: * Tractus temporopontinus ( Temporallappen - Nuclei pontis ) * Tractus corticospinalis (Pyramidenbahn: Kortex - Capsula interna - Medulla oblongata - R?ckenmark) * Tractus corticonuclearis ( Kortex - motorische Hirnnervenkerne f?r das Gesicht) * Tractus. They both have pathways leading to the substantia nigra, premotor cortex, reticular formation and the corpus striatum. Deformation and shrinkage due to alcohol pre-treatment in the myelin staining procedure could be partly corrected in a most recent case (Table 1, Hb5) by applying a protocol on mounted, instead of free-floating sections (Burgel. The transition between this part of ft and the ansa, as well as with ft proper containing both fl and al fibres, forex natomy thalamusic is unclear and cannot be identified on the basis of the present data. In brief, whole brains were fixed for 23 weeks in paraformaldehyde (PAF) 4.1 M phosphate buffer (PB) or in formalin 10 for few weeks to several months.